World of Psychology The 7th Edition by Samuel E. Wood EBOOK PDF Instant Download

World of Psychology The 7th Edition by Samuel E. Wood EBOOK PDF Instant Download

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Psychology

CHAPTER 2: Biology and Behavior

CHAPTER 3: Sensation and Perception

CHAPTER 4: States of Consciousness

CHAPTER 5: Learning

CHAPTER 6: Memory

CHAPTER 7: Cognition, Language, and Intelligence

CHAPTER 8: Child Development

CHAPTER 9: Adolescence and Adulthood

CHAPTER 10: Motivation and Emotion

CHAPTER 11: Human Sexuality and Gender

CHAPTER 12: Health and Stress

CHAPTER 13: Personality Theory and Assessment

CHAPTER 14: Psychological Disorders

CHAPTER 15: Therapies

CHAPTER 16: Social Psychology

APPENDIX A: Statistical Methods

APPENDIX B: Psychology in the Workplace

DETAILED TOC:

CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Psychology

An Introduction to the World of Psychology

APPLY IT: Best Practices for Effective Studying

The Scientific Method

The Goals of Psychology

Exploring Psychology’s Roots

Structuralism

Functionalism

The Changing Face of Psychology

Schools of Thought in Psychology

Behaviorism

Psychoanalysis

Humanistic Psychology

Cognitive Psychology

Evolutionary Psychology

Biological (Physiological) Psychology

The Sociocultural Approach

Psychological Perspectives and Eclecticism

Thinking about Theories and Research

Evaluating Theories

Evaluating Research

Descriptive Research Methods

Naturalistic and Laboratory Observation

The Case Study

Survey Research

TRY IT: Can Small Samples Really Be Representative?

The Correlational Method

The Experimental Method

Experiments and Hypothesis Testsing

Independent and Dependent Variables

Experimental and Control Groups

Sources of Bias in Experimental Research

Limitations of the Experimental Method

Participants in Psychological Research

Participant-Related Bias in Psychological Research

Protecting Research Participants’ Rights

The Use of Animals in Research

Psychologists at Work

Specialties in Psychology

Majoring in Psychology

CHAPTER 2: Biology and Behavior

The Neurons and the Neurotransmitters

The Structure of the Neuron

Communication between Neurons

Neurotransmitters: The Neuron’s Messengers

The Variety of Neurotransmitters

The Human Nervous System

Central Nervous System: The Spinal Cord

Central Nervous System: The Hindbrain

Central Nervous System: The Midbrain

Central Nervous System: The Forebrain

The Peripheral Nervous System

A Closer Look at the Brain

Components of the Cerebrum

The Cerebral Hemispheres

TRY IT: A Balancing Act

The Frontal Lobes

The Parietal Lobes

The Occipital Lobes

The Temporal Lobes

The Brain across the Life Span

Gender Differences in the Adult Brain

Discovering the Brain’s Mysteries

The EEG and the Microelectrode

The CT Scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

The PET Scan, fMRI, and Other Imaging Techniques

The Endocrine System

Genes and Behavioral Genetics

The Mechanisms of Heredity

APPLY IT: Should You Consult a Genetic Counselor?

Behavioral Genetics

CHAPTER 3: Sensation and Perception

The Process of Sensation

The Absolute and Difference Thresholds

Transduction and Adaptation

TRY IT: Sensory Adaptation

Vision

The Eye

Vision and the Brain

TRY IT: Vision

Color Vision

Theories of Color Vision

TRY IT: A Negative Afterimage

Hearing

Sound

The Ear

Theories of Hearing

Hearing Loss

The Other Senses: Smell, Taste, Touch, and Balance

Smell

Taste

Touch

Pain

Balance and Movement

Principles of Perception

Perceptual Organization

Depth Perception

Motion Perception

Puzzling Perceptions

Influences on Perception

Attention

Prior Knowledge

APPLY IT: How Dangerous Is It to Talk on a Cell Phone While Driving?

TRY IT: Bottom-Up Processing

Social Perception

Unusual Perceptual Experiences

CHAPTER 4: States of Consciousness

What is Consciousness?

Changing Views of Consciousness

Culture and Altered States of Consciousness

Circadian Rhythms

The Biology of Circadian Rhythms

Disruptions in Circadian Rhythms

Circadian Timing and Neurological Disorders

Sleep

Why Do We Sleep?

Types of Sleep: NREM and REM

Sleep Cycles

REM Sleep and Memory

Variations in Sleep

Sleep Deprivation

Sleep Disorders

APPLY IT: How to Get a Good Night’s Sleep

Dreams

The Content of Dreams

Interpreting Dreams

Meditation and Hypnosis

Meditation

TRY IT: The Relaxation Response

Hypnosis

Psychoactive Drugs

How Drugs Affect the Brain

The Behavioral Effects of Stimulants

The Behavioral Effects of Depressants

The Behavioral Effects of Hallucinogens

Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Abuse

Drug Addiction

Herbal Remedies and Supplements

CHAPTER 5: Learning

Classical Conditioning: The Original View

Pavlov and Classical Conditioning

The Process of Classical Conditioning

Changing Conditioned Responses

John Watson and Emotional Conditioning

Classical Conditioning: The Contemporary View

The Cognitive Perspective

Biological Predispositions

Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life

TRY IT: Cues in Commercials

Factors Influencing Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning

Thorndike and the Law of Effect

The Process of Operant Conditioning

Reinforcement

Schedules of Reinforcement

Factors Influencing Operant Conditioning

Punishment

Escape and Avoidance Learning

APPLY IT: How to Win the Battle Against Procrastination

Applications of Operant Conditioning

TRY IT: Using Behavior Modification

Cognitive Learning

Learning by Insight

Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps

Observational Learning

Learning from Media

CHAPTER 6: Memory

The Structure of Human Memory

The Information-Processing Approach

Sensory Memory

Short-Term Memory

Long-Term Memory

APPLY IT: Improving Memory with Mnemonic Devices

The Nature of Remembering

Three Types of Memory Tasks

The Serial Position Effect

Context and Memory

Memory as Reconstruction

Memory in Everyday Life

Flashbulb and Photographic Memories

Memory and Culture

Eyewitness Testimony

The Repressed Memory Controversy

Biology and Memory

The Hippocampus and Hippocampal Region

Neuronal Changes and Memory

Hormones and Memory

Memory Loss

Forgetting

Ebbinghaus and the First Experimental Studies on Forgetting

The Causes of Forgetting

TRY IT: A Penny for Your Thoughts

Improving Memory

TRY IT: Organizing for Memory Improvement

CHAPTER 7: Cognition, Language, and Intelligence

Cognition

Reasoning

Imagery

Concepts

Decision Making

Problem Solving

TRY IT: Water Lily Problem

TRY IT: Duncker’s Candle Problem

Artificial Intelligence

Language

The Structure of Language

Language and Thinking

Learning a Second Language

Animal Communication

Intelligence

The Nature of Intelligence

Measuring Intelligence

Requirements of Good Tests

APPLY IT: How to Build a Powerful Vocabulary

The Bell Curve

Giftedness

Mental Retardation

Learning Disabilities

Explaining Difference in Cognitive Abilities

The Heritability of Intelligence

Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable?

Race and IQ

Culture, IQ, and Achievement

Beyond Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence

TRY IT: Find Your EQ

Creativity

Savant Syndrome

CHAPTER 8: Child Development

Developmental Psychology: Basic Issues and Methodology

Controversial Issues in Developmental Psychology

Approaches to Studying Developmental Change

Prenatal Development

The Milestones of Prenatal Development

Fetal Behavior

Negative Influences on Prenatal Development

Infancy

Reflexes and Motor Development

Sensory and Perceptual Development

Learning

Temperament

Attachment

The Father-Child Relationship

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Schemes: The Foundation of Cognitive Development

Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

TRY IT: Conservation of Volume

An Evaluation of Piaget’s Contribution

Other Approaches to Cognitive Development

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural View

The Information-Processing Approach

Language Development

The Sequence of Language Development

Theories of Language Development

Learning to Read

Social Development

The Parents’ Role in the Socialization Process

Peer Relationships

Television as a Socializing Agent

Culture and Child Development

APPLY IT: Choosing a Nonparental Care Arrangement

CHAPTER 9: Adolescence and Adulthood

The Lifespan Perspective

Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

The Identity Crisis

Generativity

Adolescence

Puberty

Cognitive Development

Moral Development

Parental Relationships

The Peer Group

Emerging Adulthood

TRY IT: Emerging Adulthood

Early and Middle Adulthood

Physical Changes

Intellectual Abilities

The Impact of College Attendance

Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood

APPLY IT: Where Are You in the Career Development Process?

Later Adulthood

Physical Changes in Later Adulthood

TRY IT: Stereotypes about Later Adulthood

Cognitive Changes in Later Adulthood

Alzheimer’s Disease-The Most Common Dementia

Social Development and Adjustment in Later Adulthood

Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderly

Death and Dying

CHAPTER 10: Motivation and Emotion

Foundations of Motivation

The Components of Motivation

Types of Motivation

Biological Approaches to Motivation

Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Approaches to Motivation

TRY IT: What is Your N Ach?

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Two Primary Drives: Thirst and Hunger

Thirst

Internal and External Hunger Cues

Explaining Variations in Body Weight

Weight Loss Strategies

Eating Disorders

Understanding Emotion

Explainin the Components of Emotions

Theories of Emotion

Emotion and the Brain

Expressing Emotion

The Range of Emotion

The Development of Facial Expressions

The Universality of Facial Expressions

TRY IT: Recognizing Basic Emotions

Cultural Rules for Displaying Emotion

Emotion as a Form of Communication

The Art and Science of Lie Detection

Experiencing Emotion

The Facial-Feedback Hypothesis

APPLY IT: The Quest for Happiness

Gender Differences in Experiencing Emotion

Emotion and Cognition

Love

CHAPTER 11: Human Sexuality and Gender

Sex, Gender, and Gender Roles

Biological Sex

Psychological Gender

Early Theories of Gender Role Development

The Multidimensional Approach to Gender Roles

Gender Schema Theory

Evolutionary Theory

TRY IT: Waist-Hip Ratios

Gender Differences

Thinking about Gender Differences

Cognitive Abilities

Gender Differences in Social Behavior and Personality

Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

Influences on Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

APPLY IT: Rules for Internet Dating

Sexual Desire and Arousal

Sexual Orientation

Determinants of Sexual Orientation

Social Attitudes toward Gays and Lesbians

Gay and Lesbian Relationships

Sexual Dysfunctions

Sexual Desire Disorders

Sexual Arousal Disorders

Orgasmic and Sexual Pain Disorders

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

TRY IT: Mayo Clinic STD Quiz: What You Don’t Know Can Hurt You

Bacterial STDs

Viral STDs

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

TRY IT: Knowledge About AIDS

CHAPTER 12: Health and Stress

Sources of Stress

Life Events: Big and Small

Daily Hassles and Uplifts

TRY IT: Finding a Life Stress Score

Conflicts and Controllability

Stress in the Workplace

TRY IT: Sources of Stress in Your Life

Catastrophic Events

Racism and Stress

Socioeconomic Status and Stress

Responding to Stress

Selye and the General Adaptation Syndrome

Lazarus’s Cognitive Theory of Stress

Coping Strategies

Health and Illness

Two Approaches to Health and Illness

Coronary Heart Disease

Cancer

The Immune System and Stress

Personal Factors Reducing the Impact of Stress and Illness

Gender and Health

Race and Health

Lifestyle and Health

Smoking and Health

APPLY IT: Interpreting Health Information on the Internet

Alcohol Abuse

Diet

Exercise

Alternative Medicine

CHAPTER 13: Personality Theory and Assessment

Psychoanalytic Theories

The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious

The Id, the Ego, and the Superego

The Psychosexual Stages of Development

Evaluating Freud’s Contribution

The Neo-Freudians

Humanistic Theories

Two Humanistic Theories

Self-Esteem

TRY IT: Gauging Your Self-Esteem

Trait Theories

Early Trait Theories

TRY IT: Allport’s Trait Theory

The Five-Factor Model

Origins and Stability of the Five Factors

Culture and Personality Traits

Social-Cognitive Theories

The Situation-Trait Debate

Reciprocal Determinism

Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control

Personality Assessment

Observation, Interviews, and Rating Scales

Personality Inventories

APPLY IT: Put Your Best Foot Forward

Projective Tests

CHAPTER 14: Psychological Disorders

Defining Psychological Disorders

What is Abnormal?

Classifying Psychological Disorders

Explaining Psychological Disorders

Prevalence of Psychological Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

Panic Attacks, Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia.

Generalized Anxiety Disorders and Phobias

APPLY IT: Overcoming the Fear of Public Speaking

TRY IT: Phobia Names

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Mood Disorders

Major Depressive Disorder

Culture, Gender, and Depression

Bipolar Disorder

Explaining Mood Disorders

Suicide and Race, Gender, and Age

Schizophrenia

Age, Gender, and Schizophrenia

Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Types of Schizophrenia

Explaining Schizophrenia

Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders

Somatoform Disorders

Dissociative Disorders

Personality Disorders

Characteristics of Personality Disorders

Types of Personality Disorders

Disorders Diagnosed in Childhood

Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

CHAPTER 15: Therapies

Insight Therapies

Psychodynamic Therapies

Interpersonal Therapy

Humanistic Therapies

Gestalt Therapy

Relationship Therapies

Couple Therapy

Family Therapy

Group Therapy

Behavior Therapies

Behavior Modification Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning

Behavior Therapies Based on Other Learning Theories

TRY IT: A Possible Hierarchy of Fears

Cognitive Therapies

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

Beck’s Cognitive Therapy

Biomedical Therapies

Drug Therapy

Psychiatric Drugs for Children and Adolescents

Electroconvulsive Therapy

Psychosurgery

Evaluating the Therapies

The Therapeutic Relationship

Choosing a Therapist

APPLY IT: Is E-Therapy Right for You?

Culturally-Sensitive and Gender-Sensitive Therapy

CHAPTER 16: Social Psychology

Social Perception

Impression Formation

Attribution

Attraction

Factors Influencing Attraction

Physical Attractiveness

Romantic Attraction and Mating

TRY IT: Choosing a Life Partner

Conformity, Obedience, and Compliance

Conformity

Obedience

Compliance

Group Influence

Social Facilitation

Social Loafing

Social Roles

Attitudes and Attitude Change

Attitudes

Cognitive Dissonance

Persuasion

Prosocial Behavior

Reasons for Helping

The Bystander Effect

Aggression

Biological Factors in Aggression

Other Influences on Aggression

The Social Learning Theory of Aggression

Sexual Aggression

Prejudice and Aggression

The Roots of Prejudice and Discrimination

Is Prejudice Decreasing?

APPLY IT: “”Unlearning”” Prejudice

Answer Key

Appendix A

Appendix B

References

Glossary

Name Index

Subject Index

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