The Sociology Project: Introducing the Sociological Imagination Edition 2 by Jeff Manza EBOOK PDF Instant Download




The Sociology Project: Introducing the Sociological Imagination Edition 2 by Jeff Manza EBOOK PDF Instant Download

Table of Contents

Titile Page
Copyright Page
Brief Contents
1 The Sociological Imagination: By Jeff Manza, Lynne Haney, and Richard Arum
The Big Questions
1.1 What Is the Sociological Imagination, and Why Is It Worth Acquiring?
The Sociological Imagination
Looking Through a Sociological Lens
Engaging Our Sociological Imaginations: From Personal Puzzles To Sociological Questions
Sociological Questions: A Detailed Example
The Endless Reach of the Sociological Imagination
1.2 What Are Social Contexts, and Why Do They Matter?
Social Contexts: From Individuals to Societies
Families and Communities
Identities and Groups
Schools and Organizations
Social and Historical Contexts
Sociology as the Study of Social Contexts
1.3 Where Did Sociology Come From, and How is it Different from Other Social Sciences?
The Sociology of the Ssialsciences
The Birth of Sociology
Sociology and the Industrial Revolution
Sociology’s Siblings
Sociology’s Children
Conclusion: Looking Ahead
The Big Questions Revisited 1
2 Social Theory: By Jeff Manza, Thomas Ertman, Lynne Haney, and Steven Lukes
The Big Questions
2.1 What Is Social Theory?
Seeing the Social World Through Social Theory
The Diversity of Social Theory
Three Common Themes
2.2 How Did the Early Social Theorists Make Sense of the World?
Classical Social Theory in the Late nineteenth and early Twentieth centuries
Karl Marx (1818–1883)
Emile Durkheim (1858–1917)
Max Weber (1864–1920)
Georg Simmel (1858–1918)
W. E. B. Du Bois (1868–1963)
2.3 What Innovations In Social Theory Emerged in the Mid-twentieth Century?
New Directions in Social Theory, 1937–1965
Structural Functionalism
Conflict Theory
Symbolic Interactionism
2.4 How Has a New Generation of Social Theory Evolved?
Social Theory Since the Turbulent 1960s
The Revival of Marxism
Feminist Social Theory
Michel Foucault and the Problem of Power
Pierre Bourdieu: A New Approach to Theorizing Social Inequality
Analytical Sociology
Conclusion: Social Theory and the Sociological Imagination
The Big Questions Revisited 2
3 Studying the Social World: By Lynne Haney
The Big Questions
3.1 Where Do Sociological Questions Come From?
The Building Blocks of Sociological Research
Crafting Good Research Questions From Important Topics
How Do We Know What To Study?
3.2 What Is the Best Method to Research Different Sociological Questions?
Sociological Research Methods and challenges
Getting Started
The Classical Scientific Method ff Research
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Research Methods
Survey and Interview Methods and the Dilemmas of Design
Ethnographic Methods and the Challenge of Theory
Comparative–historical Methods and the Complexity of Comparisons
Matching the Question With a Method
3.3 What Challenges Do Sociologists Face When Collecting Data?
The Challenge of Data Collection
Sampling Issues
Issues of Reliability and Validity
The Complications of Causality
3.4 How Do Sociologists Make Sense of Their Findings?
Analyzing Data and Reaching Conclusions
How Do The Puzzle Pieces Fit Together?
What Do Our Conclusions Tell Us About the Social World?
Conclusion: Thinking Critically About Research
The Big Questions Revisited 3
4 Social Interaction: By Harvey Molotch
The Big Questions
4.1 How Do We Develop a Sense of Self?
The Social Self
The Looking-Glass Self
Significant Others, Reference Groups, and Generalized Others
Life’s a Stage
4.2 How Do We Make Sense of Our Worlds?
People’s Methodology
Context, Context, Context
Conversational Precision
Self-presentation in a Digital Age
Interaction in Public
4.3 What Challenges Do We Face as We Move From One Social Context to Another?
Shifts and dilemmas
Status and Role Change
Rule Use
Conformity Experiments
Conclusion: What We Know and What We Don’t Know
The Big Questions Revisited 4
5 Social Structure: By Jeff Manza
The Big Questions
5.1 What Is Social Structure?
Social Structure as the Context of Human Action
Defining Social Structure
Key Components Of Social Structure
5.2 How Do Roles and Social Hierarchies Shape Our Life Chances?
The First Dimension of Social Structure: Roles and Social Hierarchies
Social Hierarchies
Power and Privilege in Social Hierarchies
Group Size and Social Hierarchies
5.3 How Do Norms and Institutions Influence Social Life?
The Second Dimension of Social Structure: The Powers of Norms and Institutions
Norms and Rules
Institutions and the Patterning of Social Life
Large Organizations and Governments as Institutions
5.4 How Do Social Structures Influence Our Daily Lives and Social Interactions?
The Context of Social Interaction
Social Structure and Social Interaction
Social Structure and Individual Free Will
5.5 Why Are Social Structures Slow to Change?
The Endurance of Social Structures
Path Dependency
How Social Structures Persist
Conclusion: Social Structure
The Big Questions Revisited 5
6 Culture, Media, and Communication: By Eric Klinenberg
The Big Questions
6.1 What Is Culture?
The Many Meanings of Culture
Defining Culture
Culture as a System of Meaning and Symbols
Culture as a Set of Values, Beliefs, and Practices
Culture as a Form of Communication
6.2 How Does Culture Shape Our Collective Identity?
Culture and Group Identity
Mainstream Culture, Subcultures, and Countercultures
Is There a Dominant Culture in the United States Today?
National Cultures
6.3 How Do Our Cultural Practices Relate to Class and Status?
Class, Status, and Culture
Cultural Capital
How Culture Reproduces Class
6.4 Who Produces Culture, and Why?
The Conditions of Cultural Production
The Public Sphere
The Culture Industry Versus Cultural Democracy
The Medium is the Message
6.5 What Is the Relationship Between Media and Democracy?
Media and Democracy: a Changing Landscape
Making the News: The Media as a Cultural System
Corporate Media Concentration
Media, Democracy, and the Internet
Conclusion: Culture, Media, and Communication
The Big Questions Revisited 6
7 Power And Politics: By Steven Lukes and Jeff Manza
The Big Questions
7.1 What are the Distinct Forms of Power?
The Three Dimensions of Power
The One-dimensional View of Power
The Two-dimensional View of Power
The Three-dimensional View of Power
7.2 What is the State, and How Does it Distribute Power in a Society?
The Institutions of Power
What is the State?
Why States Matter in the Distribution of Power
Promoting the Interests of the Powerful?
7.3 Who Has Power in the United States Today?
Power in America
Who Wins? Policy and Politics in the First Dimension
Who Sets the Agenda? Power and Politics in the Second Dimension
The Third Dimension: Do Americans Believe tn Policies Benefiting the Powerful?
Conclusion: Power and Politics
The Big Questions Revisited 7
8 Markets, Organizations, and Work: By Richard Arum and Jeff Manza
The Big Questions
8.1 How Do Social Factors Impact Markets?
The Creation and Functioning of Markets
The Pervasiveness of Markets
Defining Markets
Social Networks
Markets and Power
8.2 Why Are Organizations Important for Social and Economic Life?
Organizations in the Modern World
Organizational Persistence
The Downside of Bureaucracy
8.3 What is the Relationship Between Organizations and Their External Environment?
Organizations and their Environments
Organizational Structure
Organizational Similarity
8.4 How is Work Inside Organizations Structured?
The Division of Labor in Modern Societies
Increasing Specialization in the Division of Labor
The Labor Process
8.5 How Do We Measure Work Satisfaction?
Good Jobs, Bad Jobs, No Jobs: Work in America
Work Satisfaction
Comparing Work in America With Similar Countries
Conclusion: Markets, Organizations, and Work in the Twenty-first Century
The Big Questions Revisited 8
9 Cities and Communities: By Patrick Sharkey
The Big Questions
9.1 What Draws People to Cities?
How the World Became Urban
Urbanization and the Growth of Cities
Urban, Suburban, and Rural Patterns of Settlement
9.2 How Do Neighborhoods Form and Change?
Neighborhoods and Urban Change
Urban Ecology: The Chicago School
The Political Economy of Cities and Communities
9.3 How Do Cities Influence Who We Are, Who Our Friends Are, and How We Live?
Living in an Urban World
Urbanism as a Way of Life
Communities and Networks
9.4 Why Are So Many Social Problems Found in Cities?
Social Problems and the City
Concentrated Poverty and the Urban Ghetto
Segregation and Urban Diversity
9.5 How Will Cities Change in an Increasingly Connected World?
Cities and the Connected World
Immigration and the Urban Landscape
Globalization and the City
Conclusion: Our Urban Future
The Big Questions Revisited 9
10 Social Stratification, Inequality, and Poverty: By Florencia Torche, Richard Arum, and Jeff Manza
The Big Questions
10.1 What as Inequality?
Inequality: An Introduction
A Brief History of Inequality
Measures of Economic Inequality: Wealth and Income
Inequality by Class
10.2 Why is America so Unequal?
Unequal America in Comparative Perspective
Trends in Income Inequality in the United States and Around the World
Why Did Inequality Increase?
The 1 Percent
10.3 Do We All Have an Equal Opportunity to Succeed In Life?
Inequality, Education, and Social Mobility
Measuring Opportunity: The Concept of Social Mobility
Social Mobility in Comparative Perspective
Factors Influencing Mobility
Education and Social Mobility
10.4 How Much Poverty Exists in the United States and Around The World?
Life at the Bottom: The Problem of Poverty
Different Measures of Poverty
Poverty in the United States: Who Are the Poor?
Poverty in International Comparative Perspective
Poverty and Children
Conclusion: Should We Be Concerned About Excessive Inequality?
The Big Questions Revisited 10
11 Race and Ethnicity: By Ann Morning
The Big Questions
11.1 What is the Difference Between Race and Ethnicity?
Understanding Race and Ethnicity
Sociological Definitions of Race and Ethnicity
Key Distinctions Between Race and Ethnicity
Distinguishing Racial and Ethnic Labels
11.2 IS Race Real?
The Social Construction of Race
Race and Society
Race and Biology
Race and Place
11.3 What is Racism?
Contemporary Racism
How Do Sociologists Define Racism and Discrimination?
Why Does Racism Occur?
Does Racism Still Exist in the United States?
11.4 Do Race and Ethnicity Matter Anymore?
The Impact of Race And Ethnicity Today
Disparities in Income, Wealth, and Employment
Disparities in Education
Residential Segregation
Disparities in the Criminal Justice System
Disparities in Health and Healthcare Coverage
Disparities in Political Participation and Representation
How Do We Explain the Privileges of Being White?
What About Affirmative Action?
11.5 How Are Race and Ethnicity Changing in the Twenty-first Century?
Race and Ethnicity in the Future
A Changing Population
Changing Classification and Identity
Changing Stratification
Conclusion: Developing a Sociological Imagination on Race and Ethnicity
The Big Questions Revisited 11
12 Gender and Sexuality: By Paula England
The Big Questions
12.1 Where Do Gender Differences Come From?
Gender Differences
Sex Versus Gender: The Social Construction of Gender
Gender Socialization
Gender Differences Vary By Setting and Time
The Impact of Stereotypes
12.2 How Have the Lives of Women and Men Changed in the Last 50 Years?
The Gender Revolution
Rising Women’s Employment and Education
Change in Women’s Jobs and in the Pay Gap
The Impact on Men
12.3 How Are Our Sex Lives Shaped by Biology and Society?
Sexual Orientation
Sexual Behavior
Lgbtq Discrimination
12.4 How Has Sexual Behavior Changed in the Last 50 Years?
The Sexual Revolution and Beyond
Sex Outside of Marriage
Births Outside of Marriage
Gender Inequality in Sex and Relationships
Conclusion: The Puzzle of Gender Inequality
The Big Questions Revisited 12
13 Families and Family Life: By Kathleen Gerson
The Big Questions
13.1 What is a Family?
The Many Ways We Define Family
A Global and Historical Perspective
Household or Kinship System?
13.2 Why Are Families Changing?
Changing American Families: A Controversial Topic
The Family Values Perspective
The Economic Restructuring Perspective
The Gender Restructuring Perspective
13.3 What Challenges Do We Face as We Develop Relationships and Balance Family and Work?
The New Contours of Adulthood Commitment
Love and Marriage
Mothers, Fathers, and Work–family Conflict
13.4 What is it Like to Grow Up in a Twenty-first-century Family?
Growing Up in Today’s Families
Growing Up With Working Parents
Growing Up With Divorced or Single Parents
Growing Up With Same-sex Parents
The Changing Face of Childhood
Parenting Values and Styles
Becoming an Adult and Forming Families
13.5 What Social Policies Around the World Best Support Changing Families?
Families in the United States in Comparative Perspective
Social Policy Around the World
Social Policy in the United States
Where Do We Go From Here?
Conclusion: The Future of Families
The Big Questions Revisited 13
14 Sociology of Religion: By Gerald Marwell
The Big Questions
14.1 What is Religion, and What are its Functions?
A Sociological Understanding of Religion
Defining Religion
The Incredible Variety of Religions
Early Religious Traditions and Their Modern Variants
Religion as a Social Institution
Denominations and Congregations: Serving the Needs of the Community
14.2 How Does Social Structure Impact Religious Choice?
Patterns of Religious Choice
Religious Segregation: Birds of a Feather
Social Class and Religious Preferences
New Religious Movements
14.3 Why are Some People More Religious Than Others?
Religiosity by Gender and Age
Women as Generally More Religious
Why Do People Become More Religious as they Age?
14.4 Why Do People Kill Each Other in the Name Of Religion?
Religious Conflict
Distinguishing Religious Conflicts from Ethnic and Class Conflicts
An Example of Religious Conflict in India
14.5 What is the Future of Religion?
Secularization Versus Increased Religiosity
European Irreligion
American Exceptionalism
The Future Decline of Religion in America?
The Rising Importance of Religion in the Other Parts of the World
Conclusion: Sociology of Religion
The Big Questions Revisited 14
15 Education: By Caroline H. Persell with Dirk Witteveen
The Big Questions
15.1 Why Is Formal Education Universal?
The Purposes of Education
Preparing for the Future
Economic Benefits of Schooling
The Great Equalizer?
15.2 How Is Education Related To Important Life Outcomes?
Education and Life Outcomes
Career Outcomes
Health and Life Expectancy
Family Life
15.3 Is Education Equally Available to All?
Educational Inequality
Social-class Differences
Racial and Ethnic Gaps
Gender Differences
15.4 How is the American Educational System Different From Other Countries?
Educational Systems Around the World
Learning and Achievement in International Perspective
Control and Financing of Schools
Private Schools
Teacher Quality
Organizational Practices: Testing and Tracking
Conclusion: The Future of Education in a Global Economy
The Big Questions Revisited 15
16 Health and Medicine: By Ruth Horowitz and Jennifer Jennings
The Big Questions
16.1 How Do Social Contexts Affect Health?
A Sociological View of Health
The Population as Patient
The Effects of Social Contexts on Individual Behavior
The Accumulation of Health Risks Across the Life Course
Differences in Health Across Countries
16.2 Who Gets Sick, and Why?
Health Outcomes Among Different Groups
Health and Socioeconomic Status
Income and Wealth
Race and Ethnicity
The Professionalization Of American Medicine
The Early Days Of Medicine
16.3 How Did Modern Medicine Emerge?
The Professionalization of American Medicine
The Early Days of Medicine
Modern Medicine as a Profession
Gender and Medical Professionalization
The Rise of Health Insurance and The Decline of Physicians’ Power
16.4 How Does Physician/patient Interaction Affect Health And Illness?
The Expertise of the Physician and The Knowledge of the Patient
Physicians and Power
Patient-centered Care
16.5 Why is Healthcare in America More Expensive and Less Effective than in Other Countries?
American Healthcare in Comparative Perspective
The Structure of Health Insurance in the United States
Markets and Healthcare
The Main Suspects: Explaining the High Cost of Healthcare
Can The System Be Fixed?
Conclusion: Health and Medicine
The Big Questions Revisited 16
17 Deviance and Social Control: By Troy Duster and Jeff Manza
The Big Questions
17.1 What is Deviance?
Deviance and the Group
Groups and Group Boundaries
Statistical Versus Social Deviance
Social Norms: the Unstated Rules of Everyday Life
17.2 How Is Social Control Imposed on Society?
Social Control and Social Order
Socialization: Learning the Rules of the Game
Sanctions and Rewards as Forms of Social Control
Social Stigma and the Marking of Deviance
Identifying Criminal Deviance
17.3 How is Moral Behavior Defined and Regulated?
The Problem of Moral Regulation
Interested Versus Disinterested Punishment
An Example: The Temperance Movement as a Moral Crusade
The Campaign Against Opium
Contemporary Moral Crusades
17.4 How Do Power and Inequality Impact Deviance?
Crime, Deviance, and Power
Labeling Deviance and Crime
State Deviance, Terrorism, and War Crimes
Conclusion: Deviance and the Sociological Imagination
The Big Questions Revisited 17
18 Crime and Punishment: Jeff Manza, Patrick Sharkey, and Troy Duster with Offer Egozy, Delaram Taky
The Big Questions
18.1 What Constitutes a Crime, and What are the Different Offense Types?
Crimes and Their Consequences
Defining Crime
Different Types of Crime: a Brief Overview
White-collar Crime
18.2 How Much Crime, Particularly Violent Crime, Exists in America?
Crime in the United States
Trends in Crime
Violent Crime: A Closer Look
The Consequences of Violence
18.3 How Do Sociologists Seek to Understand Crime and Punishment?
Theories of Crime and Punishment
Classical Social Theorists on Punishment
Modern Social Theories of Crime and Punishment
Goals of Punishment
18.4 Why is Mass Incarceration Controversial?
Mass Incarceration in America
Punishment in America Today
Causes of Mass Incarceration
Race and Punishment
Punishing the Powerful?
18.5 What are the Consequences of Mass Incarceration?
The Far-reaching Impact of Mass Incarceration
Consequences for Individuals
Consequences for Families
Consequences for Communities
Consequences for Society
Conclusion: Crime and Punishment and the Sociological Imagination
The Big Questions Revisited 18
19 Social Movements and Revolutions: By Jeff Goodwin
The Big Questions
19.1 What are Social Movements?
Studying Social Movements
Politics, Human Action, and Social Change
Moral Sensibilities
Understanding Social Movements Today
19.2 Why Do Movements Emerge, and Who Joins Them?
Movement Origins and Recruitment
How Movements Take Shape
Cultural Aspects of Social Movements
Recruitment: Joining or Supporting Movements
19.3 What Tactics Do Movements Use, and What Outcomes Do they Achieve?
Movement Tactics and Outcomes
The Strategies of Movements
Tactical Repertoires of Movements
The Decline and Disappearance of Movements
Cultural Consequences of Movements
19.4 What Are Revolutions, and Why Do They Occur?
Understanding Revolutions
Defining “revolution”
Revolutions, Violence, and Other Forms of Conflict
Revolutionary Situations
Revolutionary Movements and the Seizure of State Power
Political Environments that Encourage Revolutionary Movements
Conclusion: The Future o f Movements And Revolutions
The Big Questions Revisited 19
20 Environmental Sociology: By Colin Jerolmack
The Big Questions
20.1 How Does Social Life Relate to the Natural Environment?
Understanding Environment–society Relations
Traditional Societies
Modern Societies
The Environment–society Dialogue
20.2 How Has Human Activity Harmed the Environment?
Contemporary Environmental Problems
Global Warming
Natural Resource Depletion
Solid and Chemical Waste
Air and Water Pollution
20.3 How Do Environmental Factors Impact Inequality?
The Environmental Movement and Social Inequality
The Environmental Movement
Environmental Justice
The Social Dimension of Natural Disasters
Global Environmental Inequality
20.4 How Can We Create More Sustainable Societies?
Consumption, Production, and Sustainability
The Tragedy of the Commons
The Treadmill of Production
Toward Sustainability
Conclusion: Linking Environmental and Social Facts
The Big Questions Revisited 20
21 Population: By Lawrence L. Wu
The Big Questions
21.1 Why Study Population?
Population and Censuses
The Census and Population Research
Studying Population
21.2 How Do Populations Change over Time?
Population Dynamics
The First Demographic Transition
Changes in Fertility and Mortality Around the World
Immigration and Population Momentum
21.3 What Factors Influence Fertility?
Theories of Fertility Decline
Infant Mortality
Economic Development
Birth Control
Norms and Values
21.4 How are Trends in Aging and Mortality Emerging as Critical Issues in Many Societies?
The Implications of an Aging Population
The Epidemiological Transition
Aging of the Baby Boomers
Aging and Population Dynamics
Health in an Aging Population
Financing Old Age and Healthcare in Aging Societies
Death and Dying Around the World
Conclusion: Population
The Big Questions Revisited 21
22 Immigration: By Guillermina Jasso
The Big Questions
22.1 What Is Immigration, and How Do Governments Regulate It?
Immigration: A Sociological Perspective
Understanding Immigration From a Sociological Perspective
Restricting Immigration
The Basic Structure of Immigration Policy in the United States
The U.s. Legal Permanent Resident Visa System
Becoming a U.s. Citizen
“illegal” or Unauthorized Immigration
22.2 What is the History of Immigration in the United States?
The History of Immigration
The Four Eras of U.s. Immigration
The U.s.–mexico Border
22.3 Why Do People Move?
The Dynamics of Migration
The Desire to Move and Migrant Energy
Movers and Stayers
22.4 How Do Immigrants Fare in their New Environments?
The Assimilation Process
Measures of Assimilation
Recent Research on Immigrant Assimilation
A Closer Look at Language and Spatial Concentration: Ethnic Enclaves
2.5 What are the Consequences of Immigration?
The Impacts of Immigration
Immigration Dilemmas for Families
Children of Migration
Social and Economic Benefits and Costs
Conclusion: Immigration and the Future
The Big Questions Revisited 22
23 Globalization: By Vivek Chibber
The Big Questions
23.1 What is Globalization?
Globalization and its Origins
The Beginnings of Globalization
The Course of Globalization: From the Nineteenth Century to Today
23.2 How Far-reaching is Globalization?
Globalization’s Reach
The Degree of Globalization
The Importance of Regions
23.3 What Drives Globalization?
Globalization’s Driving Forces
Outsourcing and Global Value Chains
China’s Export Zones: A Case Study
23.4 What are the Benefits and Drawbacks of Globalization?
The Effects of Globalization
Economic Policies in Developing Countries: 1930s To 1980s
Nafta: A Case Study
Has Globalization Lived up to its Promise?
Conclusion: Globalization in Retrospect and Prospect
The Big Questions Revisited 23